Constitutional development in nigeria from 1960 to date. With the provision of the elective principles in the clifford 1922 constitution, herbert macaulay formed the first political party in nigeria the nigerian national democratic party nndp in 1923 which contested election. The impact of the lagos press in nigeria, 1861 1922. Constitutional development in nigeria there are divergent views on the number of constitutions nigeria which have existed in nigeria. An analytical study of nigeria s constitutionmaking developments and the historical and political factors that affected constitutional change. Lord lugard who associated with the political history of amalgamation the north and southern protectorates of nigeria and who became the first governor of the amalgamated territory of what we come to know as nigeria today ruled the country without any constitution in the real sense of the term. No further constitutional development took place until 1922. The constitution permitted the formation of political parties in nigeria so as to ensure greater participation of nigerians in their government.
Partial representation the elective principle introduced by the clifford constitution of 1922 works only for the legislative council. According to the history of nigeria, there were four constitutional periods before the independence. Merits and demerits of clifford constitution of 1922. On this page you can read or download constitutional development in nigeria pdf in pdf format. Notably, this constitution gave rise to the first division of nigeria into geopolitical regions, the three main regions namely.
Constitution of the federal republic of nigeria pdf download. The nationalists were known with series of pressure mounted on the british. Nigeria s constitutional development 1922 1999 nigeria has a rich history of constitutions. Considering the provisions of clifford constitution, the legislative council was composed of 46 members of which official members including the governor and 19. That has been the journey so far of nigeria s constitution development, from the colonial era to the current 1999 edition, as amended. Nigeria s constitutional development up to the present time pointing out, where necessary, the stresses and strains which this development has involved, and finally hazarding prospects for the countrys future. In the pre independence period nigeria had many constitutions introduced by the colonial government. A close examination of the litany of constitutions in nigeria should assist us to drive home the point. It began with the sir frederick lugards amalgamation report of the 1914.
First was the clifford constitution of 1922, then, the richards constitution. Constitutional development in nigeria from 1914 till date 1. Nigerias constitutional development 1922 1999 nigeria has a rich history of constitutions. The 1999 constitution has given birth to the fourth republic, though with problems for which it faces demands for a revision or amendment. On the whole, looking at the supremacy of the constitution and governance in nigeria, it is instructive to note that there has been poor culture of constitutionalism in nigeria. Apr 26, 2018 nigerias constitutional development history can be divided into two epochs or generations. For the constitution to fulfil its role of guiding the behaviour of both the leaders and the led, it must be simple, short, concise, and should not contain too much of legal jargons, it must be easy to read and to understand by the.
Constitutional development in nigeria essay 4927 words. Constitutional development in nigeria, examines issues relating to the historical evolution of nigeria s constitution. The man that formulated the first constitution for nigeria was sir hugh clifford. The clifford constitution of 1922 also gave way to the establishment of political parties in nigeria. Britain annexed lagos in 1861 and established the oil river protectorate in 1884. Herbert macaulay and other coastal elite had indeed, been agitating against the government. This second phase actually initiated the campaigns for constitutional development in nigeria and has not been historically analysed before now. Prof ben nwabueze has suggested that nigeria was not a state until amalgamation in 1914. The legislative powers of the federal republic of nigeria shall be vested in a national assembly for the federation, which shall consist of a senate and a house of representatives. The conference brought nigeria under british control. Constitutional development in nigeria new york essays. Merits of clifford constitution of 1922 the clifford constitution brought the elective principle into nigeria which paved way for elective representation of nigerians into the legislative council. Clifford constitution of 1922 oyedijioluwaseunbabatundes blog. Thus, the paper attempts to reexamine the evolution through the postcolonial governments that span through civilian and the military.
Colonial nigeria was the era in the history of nigeria when the region of west africa was ruled by great britain in from the midnineteenth century until 1960, when nigeria achieved independence. The constitutions enacted during this period were those of 19 which came into effect on 1 january 1914, 1922, 1946, 1951 and 1954. Constitution, the activities of sir graham thompson. The preindependence generation is made up of 6 constitutional instruments, including. The development actually stated from 1922 and a substantial content was added in 1979.
It is asserted that the drafting of constitutions is a recurring decimal in nigerias chequered political history. Examine the basic provisions of the first republican constitutions of nigeria. Jan 21, 2015 the nigerian council of 1914 created after the amalgamation of the southern and northern protectorates in the same year marked the beginning of political and constitutional development in nigeria. Sir hugh clifford constitution 1922 1925 sikiru abiola opemipo says.
Yet more content was added in 1999 when a number of amendments were also made that year. The regional governments of the north, west and east were born. It is on record that until now, eight constitutions have been operated in nigeria. The clifford constitution of 1922 features, merits. The purpose of this write up is to trace the source of the nigerian constitution and how it was developed from time. Sir hugh clifford constitution 19221925 sikiru abiola opemipo says. Nigerias constitutional development up to the present time pointing out, where necessary, the stresses and strains which this development has involved, and finally hazarding prospects for the countrys future. From 1922 through 1963 when nigeria became a republic, the analysis of almost all the constitutions produced to govern the country where either handed.
The history and politics of constitution making in nigeria 1922. Constitutional development posted by on 10122005 8. These included the clifford constitution 1922, which introduced elective representation into legislative processes in nigeria. The constitutions enacted during this period were those of 19 which came into effect on 1 january 1914, 1922. The clifford constitution gave room for more participation and representation in the government than the 1914. Constitutional development is a dynamic process and as such susceptible to a number of short comings ezra 1964. History of nigeria constitution from 1914 till date. Socially and ethnically, nigeria is a heterogeneous society.
Second is the protoprofessional era that started from 1914 and ended in 1921. The impact of the lagos press in nigeria, 1861 1922 lwati. Thus, in the colonial era, the constitution, where it existed, rather than being an instrument of empowerment was an instrument of domination. There are two sections that cover the period of constitutional development in nigeria by the british imperial administrators and within the section two periods are. The governorgeneral had veto powers on issues discussed in the legislative and.
The introduction of a single legislative council for the colony lagos and the protectorate of southern nigeria. The 1914 amalgamation constitution, the 1922 clifford constitution, the 1946. Constitutional development in the dependent territories, writes sir ivor jennings, is always empirical because these places have different origins and. Adapted from ben o nwabueze, a constitutional history of nigeria c hurst and company. In the modern state, constitution has come to be regarded as an inevitable instrument of nationhood and development. Constitutional development in nigeria 4940 words bartleby. Herbert macaulay and other coastal elite had indeed, been agitating against the government in lagos for the imposition of water rates and the appropriation of land for government projects even before lugard became. Ehindero, the constitutional development of nigeria. The history and development of constitution in nigeria. The postindependence generation is however made up of.
In order to hold nigeria together during a colonial era of growing socio economic modernization and ethnic mobilization, the british spear headed various constitutional reform conferences that culminated in the grant of independence to nigeria as a westminster style parliamentary federation of three major ethnic regions in 1960. Exploring the missing gaps in the 1999 constitution of. Nigerias constitutional development history can be divided into two. Historical survey of colonial administration in nigeria. Historical development of the nigerian constitution. It examines the provisions of the nigerian council of 1914, 1922 clifford. Historical background of nigerian politics, 19001960. Constitutional and political development in nigeria part i. This paper attempts toreexamine the evolution of constitutional governments in nigeria from 1922 to 1999. The constitution, in nigerias situation, is the supreme law of the land which all acts of individuals and of parliament must not contravene. Past constitutions colonial era 19141960 nigeria s first constitutions were enacted by order in council during the colonial era, when the country was administered as a crown colony.
Essentially, the birth of democracy in nigeria has endured for over a decade. The federation of nigeria shall consist of regions and a federal territory. The constitutional history of nigeria began with the conquest of lagos in 1861 by the british. The approach adopted is historical, from the legislation process of 1861 of lagos colony to 1914 as the period of nat ional. Rethinking the nigerian constitution dullah omar institute. History of nigerian constitutional development the. He was pressured to do this by the caseley hayfordled west african congress in 1922, which was the year the first constitution was constituted for nigeria and a host of other west african countries colonized by the british, namely gambia, sierra leone and gold coast. It is the fundamental and organic law of a nation or state that establishes.
All constitutions of nigeria clifford constitution of 1922 constitution of 1922 constitutional development in nigeria latest posts merits and demerits of clifford constitution. Imposition the people claimed that the constitution was imposed on them. However, the elective principle was limited to male adults that have resided in nigeria for over 12 months and have a gross annual income of 100 pounds. In 1923, herbert macaulay founded the first political party in nigeria, the nigerian national democratic party nndp and also established a newspaper called the west african pilot. History of nigerian constitutional development the jet. Beginning of the nigerian constitutional development under the. One glaring or major defects of the 1922 cliffords constitution was the isolation of the north from the legislative council.
Independent nigeria has so far experimented with five constitutions, the 1960, 1963, 1979, 1989 and 1999 constitutions. The nigerian council and the small legislative council for lagos were abolished by order in council in 1922 ezera, 1964. This writeup is the first in the series i would intermittently be adding to the series,the next is the clifford constitution of 1922. The importance of a constitution in any given society cannot be overemphasized. At this stage, election was restricted to the municipalities lagos and calabar with grossly unacceptable elitist pre. The constitutional development of the country saw the 1946 arthur richard constitution that really defined nigeria in terms of regions. History of nigerian constitutional development the jet lawyer. The nigerian council of 1914 created after the amalgamation of the southern and northern protectorates in the same year marked the beginning of political and constitutional development in nigeria. Military rule, civilian instability and true federalism in a deeply divided society. Jan 15, 2017 15 thoughts on constitutional and political development in nigeria part ii. Constitutional development in nigeria before independence.
The constitution, in nigeria s situation, is the supreme law of the land which all acts of individuals and of parliament must not contravene. First is the preprofessional media houses that spanned between 1859 and 1914. Read the fulltext online edition of constitutional developments in nigeria. It has been noted that the establishment of this council marked a watershed in the history of constitutional development in nigeria. Establishment of the elective principle by clifford in 1922.
History of constitutional development in nigeria, an overview. Laying the foundation for the introduction of the first political party in nigeria 1923. Constitutionmaking process independent nigeria has so far experimented with five constitutions, the 1960, 1963, 1979, 1989 and 1999 constitutions. Constitution making, constitutionalism and insurgencies in nigeria 217 belief systems. Colonial elite and constitutional making in nigeria 1922 1963. It examined the patterns and degree of the peoples involvement in these processes of constitution making and development. It is made up of a large number of groups commonly referred to. Brief constitutional history before nigeria attained nationhood in 1960 and was consequently admitted as the 100th member of the united nations, it passed through a series of constitutional developments. This is because nigeria has had a plethora of constitutions, some adopted or enacted while some ended at the draft stage spanning preindependent to present day nigeria. The relevance and importance of constitution making and constitutionalism cannot be overemphasised. Constitutional and political development in nigeria part ii. On becoming governor of the amalgamated nigeria in 1914, lord lugard established the nigerian council. The clifford constitution of 1922 abolished the nigerian council of 1914 as it was replaced by a new legislative council through which nigerians will be given access to power via electoral principles.
Constitutional development in nigeria from 1914 till date. It is asserted that the drafting of constitutions is a recurring decimal in nigeria s chequered political history. Constitutional and political development in nigeria part. Clifford constitution of 1922 28 replies the clifford constitution of 1922 abolished the nigerian council of 1914 as it was replaced by a new legislative council through which nigerians will be given access to power via electoral principles. The constitutional journey in nigeria started with the partitioning of africa in 1885 as a result of the berlin conference. A constitution amendment of the existing 1922 constitution resulted to the 1946 constitution, also known as the richard constitution, in recognition of then british governorgeneral of nigeria, sir arthur richards. Dynamics of constitutional development in nigeria, 19141999 abstract. This paper attempts toreexamine the evolution of constitutional governments in nigeria from 1922 to 1999 and identify their impact on national coherence. British influence in the region began with the prohibition of slave trade to british subjects in 1807.
History of nigerian constitutional development 1914 1960. Nov 24, 2015 on this page you can read or download constitutional development in nigeria pdf in pdf format. Clifford constitution of 1922 features, merits and demerits. The clifford constitution brought the elective principle into nigeria which paved way for elective representation of nigerians into the legislative council. If you dont see any interesting for you, use our search form on bottom v. When nigeria was eventually decolonised, postcolonial constitutions reflected the. Constitutional development in nigeria from 1914 till date nigeria is unarguably one of the most influential countries in africa. The 1914 constitution, the 1922 constitution, the 1946 constitution, the 1951 constitution, the 1954 constitution and the 1960 constitution. Mar 25, 2020 constitutional development in nigeria from 1914 till date nigeria is unarguably one of the most influential countries in africa. This article examines the intractable problem of constitutional engineering in nigeria. The remaining members were nigerians appointed by the governor. The legislative council was dominated by europeans. Oct 15, 2012 the constitutional history of nigeria began with the conquest of lagos in 1861 by the british.
Nigeria s constitutional development history can be divided into two epochs or generations. Mar 17, 2016 history of nigerian constitutional development introduction. This was followed a year after by the declaration of lagos as a new crown colony or settlement burn. Merits and demerits of clifford constitution of 1922 oldnaija. After the annexation of lagos by the british in 1861, a legislative and executive council was constituted for it.
Historical survey of colonial administration in nigeria before independence 40, 101 1997. In this course we will also engage in an analysis of issues and problems in nigeria s constitutional development from amalgamation in 1914 through colonial rule, the military era to the present. Mar 09, 2020 constitutional development in nigeria from 1914 till date 1. Instead, the first republic was degraded and destabilized by.597 1297 1479 137 668 1239 900 1215 300 1108 418 608 224 1554 1445 54 269 672 268 300 771 89 1067 1275 1457 993 969 721 1074 876 480 684 1480 1369 1260 1488 306 663 1466 564 918 325 508 377